Wednesday, April 18, 2007
Thursday, April 12, 2007
Smoking is the biggest cause of preventable disease and premature death in the U.K. Every day 300 people die due to smoking. It is estimated that one four people will be killed prematurely by their habit. Smoking kills five times more people before their time and why is smoking bad for you?
Tobacco smoke is made up of chemicals. Some of them are very harmful. The carbon monoxide reduces the ability of your blood to carry oxygen to the brain and muscles. If you want stop smoking, then the best way is to use your will power. You may be able to throw all the cigarettes away or you may want to wean yourself off them by reducing the quantity daily or weekly.
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Khartoum, Sudan: the gateway to a world of opportunity.
Sudan is the largest, and one of the most diverse countries in Africa, home to deserts, mountain ranges and rain forests. The economic dividends of peace will be great. Sudan has large areas of cultivatable land, as well as gold and cotton. Its oil reserves are ripe for further exploration.
- Population: 33 million (UN, 2005)
- Capital: Khartoum (population over 5 million)
- Area: 2.5 million sq km (966,757 sq miles)
- Major languages: Arabic, English
- Main exports: Oil, cotton, sesame, livestock and hides
- GNP per capita: US $460 (World Bank, 2003)
- Internet domain: .sd
Wednesday, March 28, 2007
It is the one and only Wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. It is the one and only Wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance, size, and shape. It is the oldest, yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Contrary to the common belief, only the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), not all three Great Pyramids, is on top of the list of Wonders. The monument was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty around the year 2560 BC to serve as a tomb when he dies. The tradition of pyramid building started in Ancient Egypt as a sophistication of the idea of a mastaba or "platform" covering the royal tomb. Later, several stacked mastabas were used. Early pyramids, such as the Step Pyramid of King Zoser (Djoser) at Saqqara by the famous Egyptian architect, Imhotep, illustrate this connection.
The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20 year period. The site was first prepared, and blocks of stone were transported and placed. An outer casing (which disappeared over the years) was then used to smooth the surface. Although it is not known how the blocks were put in place, several theories have been proposed. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. This ramp, coated with mud and water, eased the displacement of the blocks which were pushed (or pulled) into place. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed using long levers with a short angled foot.
Throughout their history, the pyramids of Giza have stimulated human imagination. They were referred to as "The Granaries of Joseph" and "The Mountains of Pharaoh". When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798, his pride was expressed through his famous quote: "Soldats! Du haut de ces Pyramides, 40 siècles nous contemplent". (Soldiers! From the top of these Pyramids, 40 centuries are looking at us)
Today, the Great Pyramid is enclosed, together with the other pyramids and the Sphinx, in the touristic region of the Giza Plateau. Also in the area is the museum housing the mysterious Sun Boat, only discovered in 1954 near the south side of the pyramid. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. It may also serve him as a means of transportation in his afterlife journey according to Ancient Egyptian beliefs.
When it was built, the Great pyramid was 145.75 m (481 ft) high. Over the years, it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top. It ranked as the tallest structure on Earth for more than 43 centuries, only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. It was covered with a casing of stones to smooth its surface (some of the casing can still be seen near the top of Khefre's pyramid). The sloping angle of its sides is 51 degrees and 51 minutes. Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass, that is, north, south, east, and west. The horizontal cross section of the pyramid is square at any level, with each side measuring 229 m (751 ft) in length. The maximum error between side lengths is astonishingly less than 0.1%.
The structure consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing more than two tons. It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3 m (10 ft) high, 0.3 m (1 ft) thick wall around France. The area covered by the Great pyramid can accommodate St Peter's in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined.
On the north face, is the pyramid's entrance. A number of corridors, galleries, and escape shafts either lead to the King's burial chamber, or were intended to serve other functions. The King's chamber is located at the heart of the pyramid, only accessible through the Great Gallery and an ascending corridor. The King's sarcophagus is made of red granite, as are the interior walls of the King's Chamber. Most impressive is the sharp-edged stone over the doorway which is over 3 m (10 ft) long, 2.4 m (8 feet) high and 1.3 m (4 ft) thick. All of the interior stones fit so well, a card won't fit between them. The sarcophagus is oriented in accordance with the compass directions, and is only about 1 cm smaller in dimensions than the chamber entrance. It might have been introduced as the structure was progressing.
New theories concerning the origin and purpose of the Pyramids of Giza have been proposed... Astronomic observatories... Places of cult worship... Geometric structures constructed by a long-gone civilization... Even extraterrestrial-related theories have been proposed with little evidence in support... The overwhelming scientific and historic evidence still supports the conclusion that, like many smaller pyramids in the region, the Great Pyramids were built by the great Ancient Egyptian civilization off the West bank of the Nile as tombs for their magnificent Kings... Tombs where Khufu, Khefre, and Menkaure could start their mystic journey to the afterlife.
Thursday, March 22, 2007
Iam ali mohammed arif alhaj. I study in university of science and
technology , in group (three)
I live in umdorman ( almohandeseen) . Ihave two brother and one
sister and my father and mother...
My hobby is : football and swimming and I like reading books and work
In a weekend Iwatch TV and after that I go to mosque to pray after
that Ido Internet for the long time ...
I used internet for three year ago and I want to learn more from
you . I think ( TAGANANET GROUP) is the very good idea for helpping
me to more information. thankyou . thank you very mach my friends for
this chance in ( TAGANANET GROUP). I use internet in searching
for information and sometimes to know the last news in the world .
with my love